Exploratories   Lighting and Shading
Normal Scaling 2D
The 2D Surface Normals applet shows students how surface normals are affected by non-proportional (non-uniform) scaling. Without this knowledge, the shading of non-uniformly scaled objects is often calculated incorrectly.

Radiosity Form Factor
This applet shows how the form factor between two patches varies in magnitude depending on the relative geometry of the patches. The cosine relationships based on relative patch rotation and the 1/r^2 relationship based on distance are plotted on a graph as the geometry is manipulated.

Radiosity Shooting vs Gathering
This applet shows students the graphic difference between two radiosity algorithms: shooting and gathering. The algorithms are animated for each iteration of the algorithms and the resulting visualization of a discretized scene and of its form factor matrix can be viewed as the animation progresses.

Reflection 2D
The 2D Reflection applet is an interactive illustration letting users reposition a light source and automatically recalculate the reflection vector. The standard equation is used with N, L and R for, respectively, the surface normal, normalized direction to a light source, and normalized reflection of L off of a surface. All equations are automatically updated with a user's changes to the illustration. A series of tips/concept explanations are available.This applet helps enhance complete understanding of essential task.